The following is a list of Alzheimer's research studies:
1. Swerdlow, R. H., Burns, J. M., & Khan, S. M. (2010). The Alzheimer's disease mitochondrial cascade hypothesis. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20(S2), 265-279. Abstract conclusion: AD endophenotype studies suggest a strong maternal genetic contribution, and links between mitochondrial function, tau phosphorylation, and amyloid-β (Aβ) amyloidosis are increasingly recognized. As predicted, AD therapies designed to reduce Aβ thus far have had at best very limited clinical benefits; our hypothesis identifies alternative therapeutic targets. While placing mitochondria at the apex of an AD cascade certainly remains controversial, it is increasingly accepted by the AD research community that mitochondria play an important role in the late-onset forms of the disease. Even if the mitochondrial cascade hypothesis proves incorrect, considering its assumptions could potentially advance our understanding of sporadic, late-onset AD.
2. Moreira, P. I., Carvalho, C., Zhu, X., Smith, M. A., & Perry, G. (2010). Mitochondrial dysfunction is a trigger of Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease, 1802(1), 2-10. Abstract conclusion: Since autophagy is the major pathway involved in the degradation of protein aggregates and defective organelles, an intense interest in developing autophagy-related therapies is growing among the scientific community. The final part of this review is devoted to discuss autophagy as a potential target of therapeutic interventions in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.
3. Liu, J., & Ames, B. N. (2005). Reducing mitochondrial decay with mitochondrial nutrients to delay and treat cognitive dysfunction, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Nutritional neuroscience, 8(2), 67-89. Abstract conclusion: In the present review, we survey the literature to identify mt-nutrients that can (1) protect mitochondrial enzymes and/or stimulate enzyme activity by elevating levels of substrates and cofactors; (2) induce phase-2 enzymes to enhance antioxidant defenses; (3) scavenge free radicals and prevent oxidant production in mitochondria, and (4) repair mitochondrial membrane. Then, we discuss the relationships among mt-nutrient deficiency, mitochondrial decay, and cognitive dysfunction, and summarize available evidence suggesting an effect of mt-nutrient supplementation on AD and PD. It appears that greater effects might be obtained by longer-term administration of combinations of mt-nutrients. Thus, optimal doses of combinations of mt-nutrients to delay and repair mitochondrial decay could be a strategy for preventing and treating cognitive dysfunction, including AD and PD.
4. García-Escudero, V., Martín-Maestro, P., Perry, G., & Avila, J. (2013). Deconstructing mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer disease. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2013. Abstract conclusion: Due to the relevance of mitochondrial alterations in Alzheimer disease, recent works have suggested the therapeutic potential of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant. On the other hand, autophagy has been demonstrated to play a fundamental role in Alzheimer-related protein stress, and increasing data shows that this pathway is altered in the disease. Moreover, mitochondrial alterations have been related to an insufficient clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. Consequently, different approaches for the removal of damaged mitochondria or to decrease the related oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease have been described. To understand the role of mitochondrial function in Alzheimer disease it is necessary to generate human cellular models which involve living neurons. We have summarized the novel protocols for the generation of neurons by reprogramming or direct transdifferentiation, which offer useful tools to achieve this result.
5. Kim, G. H., Kim, J. E., Rhie, S. J., & Yoon, S. (2015). The role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental neurobiology, 24(4), 325-340. Abstract conclusion: Antioxidant therapy has been suggested for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, although the results with regard to their efficacy of treating neurodegenerative disease have been inconsistent. In this review, we will discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and in vivo measurement of an index of damage by oxidative stress. Moreover, the present knowledge on antioxidant in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and future directions will be outlined.
6. Dumont, M., Lin, M. T., & Beal, M. F. (2010). Mitochondria and antioxidant targeted therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 20(S2), 633-643. Abstract conclusion: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are important features present in Alzheimer's disease (AD). They appear early and contribute to disease progression, both in human postmortem AD brains as well as in transgenic AD mouse brains. For this reason, targeting oxidative stress and mitochondria in AD may lead to the development of promising therapeutic strategies. Several exogenous antioxidant compounds have been tested and found beneficial in transgenic AD mice, such as vitamins and spices. However, their efficacy was much more modest in human trials. More recently, new strategies have been elaborated to promote endogenous antioxidant systems. Different pathways involved in oxidative stress response have been identified. Compounds able to upregulate these pathways are being generated and tested in animal models of AD and in human patients. Upregulation of antioxidant gene expression was beneficial in mice, giving hope for future avenues in the treatment of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders.
7. Devall, M., Mill, J., & Lunnon, K. (2014). The mitochondrial epigenome: a role in Alzheimer's disease? Future Medicine. Abstract conclusion: Considerable evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early in Alzheimer's disease, both in affected brain regions and in leukocytes, potentially precipitating neurodegeneration through increased oxidative stress. Epigenetic processes are emerging as a dynamic mechanism through which environmental signals may contribute to cellular changes, leading to neuropathology and disease. Until recently, little attention was given to the mitochondrial epigenome itself, as preliminary studies indicated an absence of DNA modifications. However, recent research has demonstrated that epigenetic changes to the mitochondrial genome do occur, potentially playing an important role in several disorders characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction. This review explores the potential role of mitochondrial epigenetic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease etiology and discusses some technical issues pertinent to the study of these processes.
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